election 2020

  • Election 2020: Who are the three ‘extra’ Essikado-Ketan parliamentary candidates?

    Following our previous fact-check that confirmed that the Electoral Commission (EC) published results for six instead of the three candidates who contested the Parliamentary seat in the Essikado-Ketan Constituency, we received several feedbacks and questions. 

    One of the questions sought to know who the three extra candidates who were apparently added mistakenly to the EC’s Essikado-Ketan parliamentary election results  were. 

    As a reminder, the names were:

    CandidatePolitical partyVote obtainedPercentage
    Samuel AbokyiGFP2600.27
    Asamoah AgyemanPNC260.06
    Sadick SarfoNDP270.06

    Series of online searches we ran revealed that all three persons were actual candidates in other constituencies.

    We found that Asamoah Agyeman and Sadick Sarfo of the People’s National Convention (PNC) and the National Democratic Party (NDC) respectively were both parliamentary candidates in the Asunafo South constituency of the Ahafo region. 

    The notice of poll in that constituency also confirmed their identities and corresponding political parties.

    Notice of poll from Asunafo South constituency

    No record was found of a Samuel Abokyi contesting on the ticket of the Ghana Freedom Party. Our further search, however, showed that Samuel Abokyi contested on the ticket of the Great Consolidated Popular Party (GCPP) as a parliamentary candidate in the Prestea Huni Valley constituency of the Western region. 

    Results from the two constituencies all three candidates contested in confirmed the number of votes the EC attributed to them on the Essikado-Ketan parliamentary result document. 

    C:\Users\Jonas\Desktop\Prestea Huni valley.jpg
    Pink sheet from Prestea Huni Valley

    Conclusion: 

    The three extra names added by the Electoral Commission to the Essikado-Ketan parliamentary election results document are actual candidates who contested the elections in different constituencies. 

  • Viral Screenshot of BBC News Africa’s report on Ghana’s election FALSE

    A viral screenshot suggests that BBC News Africa reported the just ended elections in Ghana with the headline: “Ghana’s peaceful elections dented for the first time. Opposition refuses to accept the largely flawed election.”

    The viral screenshot which suggests that BBC News Africa published a story on Ghana’s election with the headline: ‘Ghana’s peaceful elections dented for the first time. Opposition refuses to accept the largely flawed election’, is fake, therefore the claim is false.

    Full text

    The National Democratic Congress (NDC) continues to register its rejection of the results of the December 7 elections.

    Flagbearer of the party, John Dramani Mahama, at an event on Thursday, December 10, 2020, to address party faithful, emphasized his resolve not to accept the “fictionalized results of a flawed election”.

    Members of the party across the country continue to register their disappointment about the outcome of the elections.

    The election, before, during and after December 7, has received wide coverage by local and international media including the BBC, France24.com, among others.

    In the wake of this, a screenshot of a news headline that has gone viral on social media suggests that BBC News Africa referred to Ghana’s election as a flawed election.

    The headline on the screenshot reads: Ghana’s peaceful elections dented for the first time. Opposition refuses to accept the largely flawed election.

    A paragraph of the purported story that accompanied the screenshot reads: The president who evidently lost his second term bid to rule the oil and cocoa rich country has resorted to the use of military and police to intimidate his people.

    The screenshot comes with the picture of a man in military uniform, holding a gun.

    One of the posts on Facebook posted by Kwabena Bobie Ansah attracted 55 comments, 232 reactions and 256 shares at the time of filing this report on December 11, 2020.

    Verification

    To ascertain the veracity or otherwise of the story, Dubawa visited the BBC News Africa Facebook page. We also visited the URL, BBC.CO.UK as shown in the screenshot which took us to bbc.com.

    No story with such a headline was found on the Facebook page nor on BBC News bbc.com. Again, no story with such a headline could be found.

    However, on the Facebook page of BBC News Africa, a post with similar features, aside from the website address, BBC.UK.CO, as the viral screenshot was found but with a different headline which reads: Ethiopia’s Tigray crisis: how a soldier survived an 11-hour gun battle.

    A close look at the original story on BBC News Africa’s Facebook page shows the screenshot was taken of that story and edited to reflect a story about Ghana’s elections.

    Conclusion

    The viral screenshot which suggests that BBC News Africa published a story on Ghana’s election with the headline: Ghana’s peaceful elections dented for the first time. Opposition refuses to accept the largely flawed election, is fake, therefore the claim is false.

    ………

    The reporter produced this fact-check under the auspices of the Dubawa 2020 Fellowship in partnership with The Finder Newspaper to facilitate the ethos of “truth” in journalism and to enhance media literacy in the country.

  • Mahama affirms NDC’s rejection of 2020 presidential election results

    The former president and presidential candidate of the National Democratic Congress (NDC), John Dramani Mahama, has affirmed his party’s rejection of the 2020 presidential results and has insisted that his party won both the presidential and parliamentary elections.

    “It was clear as per the results of the votes that were legally cast, that the National Democratic Congress won the presidential and parliamentary elections,” Mahama said.

    Speaking at the NDC’s press conference on 10 December 2020, held after the declaration of the election results by the Electoral Commission, Mahama explained why he rejects the 2020 presidential results. 

    He emphasised his firm belief in the democratic willpower of electorates in choosing a leader and reminded his audience of his respect for this choice of electorates when he lost elections as an incumbent candidate in 2016 and conceded peacefully. 

    For this reason, having noted to have amassed the most votes from the electorates both on the presidential level and parliamentary level, Mahama reiterated his party’s position of rejecting the ‘fictionalised results of the flawed elections’.

    “I am a staunch believer in the experiment of democracy – a system of governance that allows the ultimate decision making power to rest in the hands of you, the good people of Ghana. We the people who with an eye towards the future we would like for our dear country elect representatives to go forward and realize that vision. Government serves at the choice, direction and pleasure of the people of this great nation. And  I have had the power and honour to serve my country in all levels of government. When in 2016, at the end of my first full term as president, I ran for re-election as an incumbent candidate, I respected the will of the people – I conceded, I stepped aside and I set in motion a peaceful transfer of power because I understood that it was the will of the people. And if we are to progress as a nation, if we are to live up to the inheritance of our history -one for which people have paid the ultimate price -the sacred verdict of the people must be respected, it must be protected. It has been my pledge throughout my time of service as a representative to the good people of Ghana to do exactly that, and that is why I stand before you tonight, unwilling to accept the fictionalised results of a flawed election,’’ Mahama said.

    Photo source: John Mahama (Facebook page)

    Mahama further expressed his pride in NDC’s parliamentary candidates for winning 63 more seats in parliament and making up for the 2016 election losses. He added that the candidates have indeed demonstrated the strength of the party and the strength of the mandate given to the NDC by Ghanaians to lead the country. 

  • ANALYSIS: Ghana’s presidential election results declared with significant errors

    Following what some international and local election observers say was a successful holding of Ghana’s 2020 presidential and parliamentary elections, the Electoral Commission declared the official presidential results on Wednesday, December 9, 2020, at its headquarters in Accra. The verdict was declared without results from the Techiman South Constituency which Mensa explained was under contention.

    Chairperson of the Commission, Jean Mensa, declared Nana Addo Dankwa Akufo-Addo, the incumbent president, as the winner of the keenly contested polls.

    His closest contender and former president, John Mahama, who contested on the ticket of the National Democratic Congress (NDC) came second. 

    “At the end of a transparent, fair, orderly and timely and peaceful presidential election, the total number of valid votes cast was 13,434,574, representing 79 per cent of the total registered voters. Permit me to present the result in the order of appearance on the 2020 presidential ballot.” 

    “At the end of the polls, Nana Addo Dankwa Akufo-Addo of the New Patriotic Party obtained 6,730,413 votes, being 51.595% of the total valid votes cast. John Dramani Mahama of the National Democratic Congress obtained 6,214,889 votes being 47.366 of the total valid votes cast,” she said. 

    A document from the EC shared with journalists who covered the declaration however stated different figures for votes won by each candidate. 

    C:\Users\Jonas\Desktop\dc537a76-ab4c-48ec-ab68-bf7a860e491e.jpg

    Data twist? 

    Following that declaration, however, we found some discrepancies that have been highlighted below:

    1. Madam Jean Mensa’s spoken declaration stated 13,434,574 as the total valid votes cast while the one captured on the EC’s official document was 13,121,111

    2. Madam Jean Mensa declared that Akufo-Addo got 51.595% of the total valid votes cast while the official EC document captured 51.295%

    3. The EC’s official artwork shared on its Facebook page to announce Akufo-Addo’s victory also stated 51.295%

    C:\Users\Jonas\Desktop\EC artwork.jpg

    This caught our attention because the 0.30% difference carries a significant number of votes, over 39,400

    What percentage exactly did Akufo-Addo get?

    Calculating for the actual percentage won involves dividing the total number of valid votes cast in favour of Akufo-Addo by the total number of valid votes cast and multiplying the result by 100.

    Votes in favour of Akufo-Addo/ Total number of valid votes       × 100%

    With two different “official” number of valid votes cast in the 2020 polls; these are the percentage votes Akufo-Addo would have won.

    CandidateUsing 13,434,574Using 13,121,111
    Nana Akufo-Addo50.0977%51.2945%
    John Mahama46.260%47.3655%

    More Data Twist?

    The Electoral Commission on Thursday, December 10, 2020, released a press statement in which it revised the total number of valid votes cast from the 13,434,574 “inadvertently used” to 13,119,460.

    “The Chairperson of the Electoral Commission inadvertently used 13,433,573 as the valid votes cast. The total valid votes cast is 13,119,460,” the statement said.  

    C:\Users\Jonas\Desktop\Eo3IYpiXUAILVyU.jpg
    Source: Electoral Commission of Ghana

    The statement also came with reviewed actual figures for the number of votes obtained by each candidate. 

    Below are the major differences we’ve seen.

    Table 1: Results Declared By EC Chairperson on December 9 VS Results on EC Document Given to Journalists After Result Declaration

    CandidateResults declared by Jean Mensa(Valid votes- 13,434,574)Percentage (%)Results captured on EC’s document(Valid votes 13,121,111)Percentage (%)
    Nana Akufo-Addo6,730,41350.09776,730,41351.2945
    John Mahama6,214,88946.26046,214,88947.3656
    Christian Kwabena Andrews105,5650.78577105,5650.80454
    Ivor Greenstreet12,2150.0909212,2150.09309
    Akua Donkor5,5750.04155,5750.04249
    Henry Herbert Lartey3,5740.02663,5740.02724
    Hassan Ayariga7,1400.053157,1400.05442
    Kofi Akpaloo7,6900.057247,6900.05861
    David Apasera10,8870.0810410,8870.08297
    Brigitte Dzogbenuku68480.0509768480.05219
    Nana Konadu Agyeman Rawlings6,6120.049226,6120.05039
    Asiedu Walker9,7030.072229,7030.07395
    13,434,57413,121,111

    Table 2: Difference Between Reviewed Results Provided In EC Press Release on Thursday, December 10, 2020, And EC Document To Journalists After Wednesday’s Declaration

    CandidateReviewed results (Valid votes 13,119,460)  Percentage (%)Difference between earlier results and reviewed results (Votes)
    Nana Akufo-Addo6,730,58751.30232+174
    John Mahama6,213,18247.35852-1707
    Christian Kwabena Andrews105,5480.804515-17
    Ivor Greenstreet12,2000.092992-15
    Akua Donkor5,5740.042487-1
    Henry Herbert Lartey3,5640.027166-10
    Hassan Ayariga7,1380.054408-2
    Kofi Akpaloo7,6830.058562-7
    David Apasera10,8820.082945-5
    Brigitte Dzogbenuku6,8490.052205+1
    Nana Konadu Agyeman Rawlings6,5490.049918-63
    Asiedu Walker9,7040.073966+1
    13,119,460-1651

    Based on the above information, we find that the EC provided three different pieces of information on Ghana’s presidential election results. 

    The last official information from the EC on the results of Ghana’s presidential elections is Thursday’s press release which said President Akufo-Addo obtained 6,730,587, constituting 51.30232 per cent and John Mahama, 6,213,182, representing 47.35852 per cent of 13,119,460 valid votes cast.

    The results declared by Madam Jean Mensa has already been widely reported in both local and international media including France24, DW and Aljazeera although the EC has announced a revision. 

    Besides the fact that widely publicized erroneous data would mislead the public, it is concerning that such errors will riddle a major election result declaration such as Ghana’s. 

    The Vice President of IMANI Africa, Bright Simons believes that the situation is worrying. 

    He says most of the challenges observed with the country’s elections have been as a result of poor execution of documentation and administrative tasks on the part of the independent election management body. 

    “The problem is quite simply that over the past 10 years the country has spent roughly $200 million in biometric and allied technologies, systems and their maintenance. All this shiny gear does only one thing: stop impersonation. But this is hardly the biggest problem in our elections. As we saw in the 2013 petition and are seeing in the current slew of controversy, the real mess in the elections has always been clerical,” he said. 

    He adds that based on how the EC conducts its administrative work, it is not surprising to him that the EC’s official results have changed a few times. 

    “Apart from the seminal decision to give copies of pink sheets and other tally sheets to parties as a matter of right, we have done little to improve on that whole administrative and logistical process since 1992. It is thus not surprising that tallies for the same polling stations have differed across the political parties, the EC, the media and the observer missions… There certainly are concerns when even the Electoral Commission itself start flip-flopping on basic numbers. Hopefully, we shall not go to sleep on these issues like we did after the last petition.”

  • Mahama has Not Conceded Defeat

    Viral social media messages suggest that John Mahama has conceded to the ruling NPP.

    During an emergency press conference held last night, John Mahama, flagbearer of the opposition National Democratic Congress (NDC) indicated that he has not conceded defeat.

    Full Text 

    As Ghanaians await the Returning Officer Jean Mensah to announce the final result of the presidential elections, social messages claim John Mahama has conceded defeat.

    Verification

    Mahama has denied the rumours. During a press conference held last night, Mahama said:

    “…I want to state categorically and firmly that I have not congratulated any person, and no attempt should be made to steal this election,” Mahama said.

  • True, Akufo-Addo’s picture cut off on some ballot papers at Awutu Twimi and Alhaji Salam Grinding mill polling stations

    Akufo Addo’s picture is missing on ballot papers at Awutu Twimi polling station in the Central Region and the Alhaji Salam Grinding Mill polling station in the Bawku Central Constituency.

    The CODEO Constituency Supervisor present at the polling station has confirmed that a voter noticed it, reported it to an NPP agent and an alarm was raised. The Electoral Commission has also confirmed it in a press statement.

    Full text: 

    A claim circulating on WhatsApp is stating that there are ballot papers at the Awutu Twimi polling station in the Central Region which do not have the picture of NPP presidential candidate, Akufo-Addo on them. Videos circulating on Twitter also show this claim

    It reads below: 

    Verification: 

    Dubawa verified from the CODEO Constituency Supervisor (CS) officer stationed at the Awutu Senya West, Awutu Twinmi polling station where the incident is reported to have happened, and it was confirmed to be true. 

    The CODEO CS  stated that a voter detected the missing picture of Akufo-Addo on the ballot paper, and reported it to an NPP agent who consequently raised the alarm. 

    Upper East region incident

    A similar claim was made in the Upper East region.

    Verdict: True. The presidential ballot paper was issued to a voter at the Alhaji Salam Grinding Mill polling centre in Bawku Central constituency without the image of candidate Akufo-Addo.

     Verification

    Citi News’s Upper East Regional Correspondent confirmed that the incident occured at the Alhaji Salam Grinding Mill polling center in the West Natinga electoral area of the Bawku Central constituency.

    He reported that, “It is not a rumour. This happened.”

    “It happened at the Alhaji Salam Grinding Mill polling station in the West Natinga Electoral area of the Bawku Central constituency… The first person voted with part of that ballot paper being torn. The same repeated the second time and it caught the attention of the party agent of the NPP and he moved to rectify it. They recalled that ballot and issued a new ballot to the voter. The regional directorate of the NPP tells me that they have made a complaint to the EC but the matter, for now, has been resolved,” he said in a live interview on Citi TV.

    Based on the ballot paper serial number, we confirmed from the Electoral Commission’s master sheet for polling stations that the ballot paper in the photo was indeed for the Bawku Central constituency.  

    Both incidents have been confirmed in a press statement by the Electoral Commission which says it will deal with the officers who tampered with the ballot papers.

    Source: Electoral Commission

    Conclusion: 

    The claim that there is a missing picture of Akufo-Addo on ballot papers at Awutu Twimi and Alhaji Salam grinding mill polling station is true. CODEO officers and Citi FM respondents present on site have confirmed it, and the incident has been reported. The Electoral Commission has also confirmed both incidents in a press statement and has promised to deal with the officers who tampered with the ballot papers.

  • True, NPP Is Offering Free Transportation to Voting Grounds for Their Supporters

    Claim: The New Patriotic Party is organising free transportation for supporters to vote across the country.

    True. Free transportation has been organised for NPP supporters to vote in various regions. Gary Kotei, a volunteer with the NPP and whose number is stated on the list, stated that the gesture is to ease movement of the party supporters. 

    Full Text:

    According to a publication on Yen.Gh, the New Patriotic Party (NPP) has organised free transportation for supporters to go to their various polling stations across the country to vote.

    Image Source: Yen.com

    Verification:

    Dubawa dialled some of the numbers indicated on the image and confirmed that indeed, the ruling New Patriotic Party (NPP) has organised free transportation for supporters.

    In a conversation with Gary Kotei, a volunteer with the NPP and whose number is stated on the list, he stated that the gesture is to ease movement of the party supporters. 

    “Basically, what we are doing here is helping people travel from region to region…If you are in Accra and going to vote in the Eastern region, we will help you out…come to Circle, Kokomlemle, Accra Technical Training School(ATTC). Ask for the NPP office. Buses are moving from now to tomorrow dawn”.

    Conclusion: 

    It is true that the ruling New Patriotic Party (NPP) has organised free buses for supporters to ease their movement to polling units.

  • How are Members of Parliament elected In Ghana?

    Ghana’s Members of Parliament (MPs) are elected every four years – on December 7, the same day as the Presidential elections – to represent citizens living in a designated area called a constituency. The division of regions of the country into constituencies is overseen by the Electoral Commission and according to the laws of the land, cannot be done within less than seven years. 

    Since the inception of the fourth republic in 1993, the number of constituencies in the country have been reviewed twice. 

    Year19921996200020042008201220162020
    Number of Constituencies200199200230230275275275

    Source: Electoral Commission; Africa Elections Database (In the 1996 election, 200 seats were contested for, however; elections for one seat in the Ashanti region was postponed and a by-election was held in 1997 to determine the winner of the seat).

    MPs will be elected from 275 constituencies in this year’s general elections as indicated in the 2019 list of districts and constituencies.

    To qualify to partake in these elections,  an individual must go through the following processes:

    Step 1: Parliamentary Primary Elections

    For an individual to qualify to run for a parliamentary seat, he or she must, among others (pg 159 to 161),

    • be a citizen of Ghana, has attained the age of twenty-one years, and is a registered voter;
    • be a resident in the constituency for which he stands as a candidate for election to Parliament, or has resided there, for a total period of not less than five years out of the ten years immediately preceding the election for which he stands, or he hails from that constituency;
    • have paid all his taxes or made arrangements satisfactory to the appropriate authority, for the payment of his taxes;
    • Not owe allegiance to another country other than Ghana;
    • Not have been declared bankrupt;
    • Must be of sound mind or not have been  detained as a criminal lunatic under any law in force in Ghana; 

    After meeting the above requirements, the individual can nominate him/herself or be nominated by others by picking nomination forms made available by the Electoral Commission. 

    Nomination forms are then completed and submitted to the returning officer.

    For the nomination forms to be considered valid, the nomination form must satisfy the following requirements;

    “(a) witnessed by the signature, or mark of two electors as proposer and seconder, and supported by eighteen other electors, as assenting to the nomination; and

     (b) endorsed with the candidate’s consent, to nomination”.

    A candidate cannot represent more than one constituency nor can a person nominate more than one candidate for election.

    Primaries, where parliamentary candidate aspirants are elected, are then conducted by all political parties who have multiple individuals interested in representing the party in the major elections. This process is done to ensure internal party democracy, openness, and transparency(Daddieh & Bob-Milliar, 2012). 

    At the time of their nomination,  parliamentary candidates are expected to make statutory declarations deposits as determined by the Electoral Commission (EC). 

    In the case of a nominee going unopposed by the time of expiry of the time allowed for delivering nomination, and a day before the election, the candidate will be declared elected.

    Step 2: Election Day

    MPs are elected on the same day presidents are elected. They have the same term or length of stay as an elected president has, four years, after which they have the option to repeat the process again in order to be re-elected or otherwise.

    After votes are cast on election day in the various constituencies, results are tabulated and declared by the presiding officers at each polling station and then communicated to the returning officer in every district as appointed by the Electoral Commission. See page 149 of C.I. 15.

    A candidate is declared elected when he/she has the most valid votes cast in their name.

    Should there be an equality vote (a tie) between candidates, a second election will be held within 30 days of receipt of an endorsed writ by the EC as indicated on page 151 clause 40(2) of the C. I. 15. The winner will be declared based on the number of valid votes cast for each individual.

    Unlike the presidential elections where the C.I.15 (page 152) clearly states that a candidate who receives more than 50% of the votes is declared winner, the parliamentary elections are different. The candidate to whom the most votes have been given wins the parliamentary elections.

    For more information, see chapter 55 of The Public Elections Regulation, 1996 (C.I.15) which provides a detailed description of requirements, directives and regulations for general elections in Ghana. 

  • Becoming the President of the Republic of Ghana: Constitutional provisions for how the President is elected

    It is a democratic obligation that a president is elected to have oversight of a nation. In Ghana, Chapter 8 of the 1992 Constitution stipulates that a president of the Republic of Ghana, who is to be the Head of State, Head of Government, and Commander-in-chief of the Armed forces of Ghana is elected every four years.  

    Indeed, the presidency is a position with acknowledged privileges and responsibilities. 

    But how does one get there? 

    To put it simply, the majority of citizens put their confidence in one person to govern the affairs of the country by voting for him or her to wield that power. This electoral process is enshrined in the 1992 Constitution of Ghana and the 2020 Constitutional Instrument 127.  Even though anyone can become a president, not everyone can be the president; there are certain qualifications and criteria one must meet, and processes one must undergo according to the corresponding laws and regulations, in order to be elected as President of the Republic of Ghana.

    QUALIFICATIONS OF A PRESIDENT

    Chapter 8, Article 62 of the 1992 Constitution of Ghana details the qualifications of a Presidential Candidate with regards to citizenship, age and eligibility as a Member of Parliament (MP) – except disqualified as MP based on conviction of crime, incompetence and under death or imprisonment sentence specified in Article 94. 

    It states:

    A person shall not be qualified for election as the President of Ghana unless—

    (a) he is a citizen of Ghana by birth;

    (b) he has attained the age of forty years; and

    (c) he is a person who is otherwise qualified to be elected a Member of Parliament, except that the disqualifications set out in paragraphs (c), (d), and (e) of clause (2) of article 94 of this Constitution shall not be removed, in respect of any such person, by a presidential pardon or by the lapse of time as provided for in clause (5) of that article.

    ELECTION OF PRESIDENT

    Chapter 8, Article 63 of the 1992 Constitution of Ghana and Regulations 7, 8 and 44 of the 2020 Constitutional Instrument (C.I) 127 by the Electoral Commission stipulates the election criteria of a Presidential Candidate with regards to: 

    i)the nomination process

    ii)the duration for the election

    iii)the percentage of votes to be accumulated 

    iv)the case for a run-off

    v)the withdrawal of a presidential candidate and 

    vi) the declaration of the results

    i) The nomination process 

    The Electoral Commission details the process to be followed by candidates in filing for nominations. This includes the signing and delivery of forms, the declaration of being qualified, the payment of deposit and the nomination of running mates by the presidential candidates. 

    Concerning the signing and delivery of forms, Regulation 7 of the 2020 C.I 127, also specified in Chapter 8, Article 63 of the 1992 Constitution states that:

    (1) A candidate for election as President shall be nominated on a nomination form in a manner determined by the Commission. 

    (2) The nomination form for each candidate in an election for President shall 

    (a) be signed by the candidate; 

    (b) be signed by not less than two persons who are registered voters in the area of authority of each district assembly; 

    (c) designate a person to serve as Vice-President; and 

    (d) be delivered to the Commission on or before the day appointed as nomination day in relation to the election. 

    (3) The nomination form shall be in quadruplicate and shall be delivered personally by (a) the presidential candidate, or

    (b) any of the persons specified under paragraph 

    (b) of subregulation (2), between the hours of nine in the morning and twelve noon and the hours of two and five in the afternoon on or before the nomination day. 

    (4) A person shall not nominate more than one candidate in a presidential election. 

    Regulation 8 of the 2020 C.I 127 also specifies the candidate’s declaration of qualification, submission of photos, payment of deposit and nomination of running mates.

    It states that:

    (1) A candidate for presidential or parliamentary election shall, at the time of the nomination of the candidate, 

    (a) deliver or cause to be delivered to the returning officer 

    (i) a statutory declaration stating that that candidate is qualified to be elected as President or a member of Parliament and is not disqualified from being elected as such; and 

    (ii) four post-card size copies of a recent photograph of the candidate of bust size with red background showing the full face and ears of the candidate; and 

    (b) deposit or cause to be deposited an amount of money determined by the Commission. 

    (2) The statutory declaration shall be made before a Judge, a judicial officer, notary public, commissioner of oaths, or a person authorised by law to administer an oath who shall certify the statutory declaration under the signature of the person. 

    (3) A person designated by a candidate for presidential election to serve as Vice-President shall deliver to the returning officer a statutory declaration made in accordance with subparagraph (i) of paragraph (a) of subregulation (1) and subregulation (2). 

    ii) The duration for the election 

    Chapter 8, Article 63 of the 1992 Constitution indicates the number of months for the election due date in consideration of the sitting president.

    It states that:

    (2) The election of the President shall be on the terms of universal adult suffrage and shall, subject to the provisions of this Constitution, be conducted in accordance with such regulations as may be prescribed by constitutional instrument by the Electoral Commission and shall be held so as to begin— 

    (a) where a President is in office, not earlier than four months nor later than one month before his term of office expires; and 

    (b) in any other case, within three months after the office of President becomes vacant; and shall be held at such place and shall begin on such date as the Electoral Commission shall, by constitutional instrument, specify. 

    iii) Percentage of votes to be accumulated 

    Chapter 8, Article 63 of the 1992 Constitution indicates the number of votes a candidate must accumulate in order to be considered the winner for the seat of presidency.

    It states that:

    (3) A person shall not be elected as President of Ghana unless at the presidential election the number of votes cast in his favour is more than fifty per cent of the total number of valid votes cast at the election. 

    Regulation 44 of 2020 C.I 127 also states: 

    (1) In a presidential election, the candidate who receives more than fifty percent of the total number of valid votes cast shall be declared elected as President.

    iv) The case for a run-off

    Chapter 8, Article 63 of the 1992 Constitution, also specified in Regulation 44 of the 2020 C.I 127 shows the circumstance under which a second election occurs, and the number of days it must be held. 

    It states that:

    (4) Where at a presidential election there are more than two candidates and no candidate obtains the number or percentage of votes specified in clause (3) of this article a second election shall be held within twenty-one days after the previous election. 

    (5) The candidates for a presidential election held under clause (4) of this article shall be the two candidates who obtained the two highest numbers of votes at the previous election. 

    (6) Where at a presidential election three or more candidates obtain the two highest numbers of votes referred to in clause (5)  of this article, then unless there are withdrawals such that only two candidates remain, another election shall be held within twenty-one days after the previous election at which the candidates who obtained the two highest numbers of votes shall, subject to any withdrawals, be the only candidates and the same process shall, subject to any withdrawal, be continued until a President is elected. 

    v) Withdrawal of a candidate 

    Regulation 44 of the 2020 C.I 127, also specified in Chapter 8, Article 63 of the 1992 Constitution, makes provision for a candidate to withdraw at any time before the election. 

    It states that:

    (5) A presidential candidate under subregulation (3) or (4) may, by writing and signed by the candidate, withdraw the candidature at any time before the election.

    (6) If after a second presidential election the two candidates obtained an equal number of votes, despite any withdrawal, the Commission shall conduct an election within twenty-one days after the previous election and the two candidates shall be the only candidates and the same process shall, subject to any withdrawal, be continued until a President is elected.

    vi) Declaration of the results

    Chapter 8, Article 63 makes provision for the Constitutional Instrument (C.I.) by the Electoral Commission to specify who declares the results. 

    It states that: 

    (9) An instrument which— 

    (a) is executed under the hand of the Chairman of the Electoral Commission and under the seal of the Commission; and 

    (b) states that the person named in the instrument was declared elected as the President of Ghana at the election of the President, shall be Prima facie evidence that the person named was so elected

    Accordingly, the Chairman of the Electoral Commission, according to the 2020 C.I. 127 is mandated to declare the presidential results, in succession from the Returning Officer,  the District Electoral Officer and the Regional Collation Officer who publicly announce the results accordingly in their jurisdictions and post copies of the results to the corresponding officers. 

    The declaration of the presidential results by the E.C Chair specified in Regulation 44 of the 2020 C.I 127 involves assembling and collating the results from the regions, filling the declaration of presidential results form which is also to be signed by the representatives of the political parties, declaring the results, and posting a copy of the results at the Commission. 

    Regulation 44 of the 2020 C.I 127 states: 

    (10) The Chairman of the Commission shall, on receipt of the Presidential Regional Results Summary Sheet as set out in Form Twelve of the Schedule from the Regional Collation Officer, in the presence of the public and with not more than two counting agents appointed by parties contesting or the polling agents of the parties if any, 

    (a) assemble and collate the presidential election results from the regions provided by the various Regional Collation Officers as set out in Form Twelve of the Schedule; 

    (b) fill the Declaration of Presidential Results Form as set out in Form Thirteen of the Schedule; 

    (c) request the representatives of the political parties to sign the Declaration of Presidential Results Form as set out in Form Thirteen of the Schedule; 

    (d) declare the results of the election of the President; and 

    (e) post a copy of the Declaration of Presidential Results Form as set out in Form Thirteen of the Schedule at the Head Office of the Commission. 

    1. TERM OF OFFICE OF PRESIDENT 

    Chapter 8, Article 66 of the 1992 Constitution stipulates how long the elected candidate shall be in office after being sworn-in as president; for two terms of four years each. 

    It states:

    (1) A person elected as President shall, subject to clause (3) of this article, hold office for a term of four years beginning from the date on which he is sworn in as President.

    (2) A person shall not be elected to hold office as President of Ghana for more than two terms. 

    (3) The office of President shall become vacant— 

    (a) on the expiration of the period specified in clause (1) of this article; or 

    (b) if the incumbent dies or resigns from office or ceases to hold office under article 69 of this Constitution. 

    Consequently, when the president is elected, the date for swearing him or her into office is on the 7th of January, the following year.

  • Key Statistics from Elections In Ghana

    Dominant Political parties since the Fourth Republic

    On December 7th, 2016, Members of seventh Parliament were elected to office. The dissolution of the sixth Parliament took place on the eve of January 6th, 2017  followed by the ushering in of the seventh Parliament of January 7th, 2017.

    The predominant parties of representation in Ghana’s parliament have been the New Patriotic Party (NPP) and the National Democratic Congress (NDC). Power has rotated between these two parties since the fourth republic commenced in 1992/3.

    Year1992199620002000 (RO)200420082008 (RO)20122016
    Political PartyNPP30.439.648.256.952.549.149.847.753.9
    NDC58.357.444.543.144.647.950.250.744.4
    Others11.337.32.93.01.61.7

    Source: Boakye (2018)

    Others, as indicated above, represent the other political parties that contested in the elections. See more here.

    In terms of political party representation in the present parliament, of the 275 MPs, 169 were members of the ruling New Patriotic Party (NPP), 106 belonged to the opposition National Democratic Congress (NDC).

    Gender representation in the Ghanaian Parliament since 1992

    Gender representation in the present parliamentary seating is heavily skewed towards males with 240 males being elected to parliament and only 35 females. In comparison to previous years, female representation in parliament has steadily improved.

    Source: fesghana.org
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